Demetia Or Alzheimer’s Disease
Senile dementia/Alzheimer’s type (SDAT)
Definition
Alzheimer’s disease (AD), one form of dementia, is a progressive, degenerative brain disease. It affects memory, thinking, and behavior.
Memory impairment is a necessary feature for the diagnosis of this or any type of dementia. Change in one of the following areas must also be present: language, decision-making ability, judgment, attention, and other areas of mental function and personality.
The rate of progression is different for each person. If AD develops rapidly, it is likely to continue to progress rapidly. If it has been slow to progress, it will likely continue on a slow course.
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
More than 4 million Americans currently have AD. The older you get, the greater your risk of developing AD, although it is not a part of normal aging. Family history is another common risk factor.
In addition to age and family history, risk factors for AD may include:
· Longstanding high blood pressure
· History of head trauma
· High levels of homocysteine (a body chemical that contributes to chronic illnesses such as heart disease, depression, and possibly AD)
· Female gender — because women usually live longer than men, they are more likely to develop AD
There are two types of AD — early onset and late onset. In early onset AD, symptoms first appear before age 60. Early onset AD is much less common, accounting for only 5-10% of cases. However, it tends to progress rapidly.
The cause of AD is not entirely known but is thought to include both genetic and environmental factors. A diagnosis of AD is made based on characteristic symptoms and by excluding other causes of dementia.
Prior theories regarding the accumulation of aluminum, lead, mercury, and other substances in the brain leading to AD have been disproved. The only way to know for certain that someone had AD is by microscopic examination of a sample of brain tissue after death.
The brain tissue shows “neurofibrillary tangles” (twisted fragments of protein within nerve cells that clog up the cell), “neuritic plaques” (abnormal clusters of dead and dying nerve cells, other brain cells, and protein), and “senile plaques” (areas where products of dying nerve cells have accumulated around protein). Although these changes occur to some extent in all brains with age, there are many more of them in the brains of people with AD.
The destruction of nerve cells (neurons) leads to a decrease in neurotransmitters (substances secreted by a neuron to send a message to another neuron). The correct balance of neurotransmitters is critical to the brain.
By causing both structural and chemical problems in the brain, AD appears to disconnect areas of the brain that normally work together.
About 10 percent of all people over 70 have significant memory problems and about half of those are due to AD. The number of people with AD doubles each decade past age 70. Having a close blood relative who developed AD increases your risk.
Early onset disease can run in families and involves autosomal dominant, inherited mutations that may be the cause of the disease. So far, three early onset genes have been identified.
Late onset AD, the most common form of the disease, develops in people 60 and older and is thought to be less likely to occur in families. Late onset AD may run in some families, but the role of genes is less direct and definitive. These genes may not cause the problem itself, but simply increase the likelihood of formation of plaques and tangles or other AD-related pathologies in the brain.

Symptoms
In the early stages, the symptoms of AD may be subtle and resemble signs that people mistakenly attribute to “natural aging.” Symptoms often include:
· Repeating statements
· Misplacing items
· Having trouble finding names for familiar objects
· Getting lost on familiar routes
· Personality changes
· Losing interest in things previously enjoyed
· Difficulty performing tasks that take some thought, but used to come easily, like balancing a checkbook, playing complex games (such as bridge), and learning new information or routines
In a more advanced stage, symptoms are more obvious:
· Forgetting details about current events
· Forgetting events in your own life history, losing awareness of who you are
· Problems choosing proper clothing
· Hallucinations, arguments, striking out, and violent behavior
· Delusions, depression, agitation
· Difficulty performing basic tasks like preparing meals and driving
At end stages of AD, a person can no longer survive without assistance. Most people in this stage no longer:
· Understand language
· Recognize family members
· Perform basic activities of daily living such as eating, dressing, and bathing

Signs and tests
The first step in diagnosing Alzheimer’s disease is to establish that dementia is present. Then, the type of dementia should be clarified. A health care provider will take a history, do a physical exam (including a neurological exam), and perform a mental status examination.
Tests may be ordered to help determine if there is a treatable condition that could be causing dementia or contributing to the confusion of AD. These conditions include thyroid disease, vitamin deficiency, brain tumor, drug and medication intoxication, chronic infection, anemia, and severe depression.
Tests that are often done to evaluate or exclude other causes of dementia include computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and blood tests.
In the early stages of dementia, brain image scans may be normal. In later stages, an MRI may show a decrease in the size of the cortex of the brain or of the area of the brain responsible for memory (the hippocampus). While the scans do not confirm the diagnosis of AD, they do exclude other causes of dementia (such as stroke and tumor).
Treatment
Alumina-A person who are very sad and of variabable very moody, very hasty and very much hurried with a great mental confusion and even make mstakes in writing and speaking and also about their own identity; exaggerate time and distance- an hour seems a day and short distance seems too long ;very impulsive when he sees sharp distance seems too long;who are very impulsive.Memory weakness, Alzheimers diseases , senility and dementia are the diseases that are caused. The consiousness of reality and judgement is also disturbed.Confusion to their own personal identity . when he sees or states something, he has the feeling , as though another person had said or seen it or as though he was placed in another person and could see only..

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Genko Biloba- Mentally weak and exhausted. Poor concentration. Dullness of mind. Loss of memory and inability to solve mental tasks. Absendt-minded and forgetful. Senility and Alzheimer’s Disease. Sensation of mental fatigue . Mental work is an effort to carry out .
Hellibourus Niger - Very irritable and easily angered , dull, stupid. Woeful and melancholic does not like to be disturbed. Consolation Aggravates most of the complains.Silent and extremely anguished. When questioned, answers slowly, giving picture of acute idiocy.

Nux Moschata- Absent Minded and thus cannot think or concentrate the mind on anything; indifferent and not intrested in any thing for self or others; Very much forgetful due to extreme weakness of memory, so much , that he cannot recognize a well known street and connot remmber any thing.Again he uses wrong workds due to vanishig of thoughts while reading, talking or writing. Again his mood is frequently chainging one moment laughing and next moment crying. sudden change from grave to gay and from lovely to serene.

Zinc- Muddled. Brain-fag. Weak Memory, very sensitive to noise. Averse to work to talk, Fretful, Melancholia. Lethergic stupid. Easily startled, excited or intoxicated. Forgetful. sensitive to othere talking and noise. weeps on angry.
Other following drugs will be consider for this disease -
Agaricus, Ambra G., Belladonna, Hyos, Lilium Tig, Nat Sulph, Phosphoric acid, Phosphorus, pic Acid, Nux vomica, Phosphorus.